Lab Test Glossary G

Gastrin: Gastrin, a digestive hormone produced by the pancreas, stimulates the production of acid in the stomach. Gastrin levels are abnormal in a variety of diseases of the digestive tract and kidneys. Too much gastrin can cause severe peptic ulcer disease. Gastrin levels are also helpful in the evaluation of Zollinger-Ellison tumors (gastrinomas) and other causes of hypergastrinemia.
Globulin: Globulins are one of the major families of proteins that exist in the blood. Some of these proteins are produced in the liver and others are formed by the immune system. Globulins are the key building blocks of antibody proteins and play an important role in helping to fight infection. Gamma globulins include immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin E (IgE), and immunoglobulin M (IgM). Other globulins consist of non- antibody proteins, such as alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and alpha-1- antitrypsin (AAT). High globulin levels may indicate kidney or liver disease, autoimmune disease, infection, cancer or chronic inflammation. Low globulin levels may indicate immune system dysfunction, malnutrition, liver or kidney disease, or blood disorders.
Glucose: Most dietary carbohydrate is converted into glucose in the body. Glucose is a major source of energy for most body cells. Blood glucose is regulated within narrow limits by the hormone insulin, but also by glucagons, cortisol, and epinephrine. Glucose levels are most commonly measured to diagnose diabetes or to monitor diabetes treatments.
Glutathione S-Transferases (gst): Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes that play a key role in cellular detoxification. They are important in metabolizing various compounds, including drugs, and in detoxifying cancer- causing agents.
Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (gm-csf): Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a protein that stimulates the production of white blood cells and cells that become platelets. Cancer treatment such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy can negatively affect these cells, which may put a person at risk for developing infections. GM-CSF does not directly affect tumors but through its role in stimulating blood cells it can be helpful in supporting a person's immune system during cancer treatment.
Growth Hormone (gh): Growth hormone (also called somatotropin) is a produced in the pituitary gland and it regulates growth. Growth hormone is measured when there is abnormal growth in adults or children or when there is a history of a pituitary problem. Growth hormone deficiency may be the result of neoplastic or infiltrative disease of the pituitary or may follow cranial irradiation for brain tumors and other cancers.
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