Lab Test Glossary H

Heat Shock Cognate Protein 70 ig Antibody (hsc 70): Heat shock proteins (also called stress proteins) inside cells become more active when the cell is exposed to stressors, such as increased temperature, toxins, infection, or lack of oxygen. They have several functions that help the cell to recover from stress and repair stress-induced damage. Antibodies against these proteins may indicate that a person is at increased risk of certain disorders.
Heat shock protein 32 ig Antibody (hsp 32 Ab): Heat shock proteins (also called stress proteins) inside cells become more active when the cell is exposed to stressors, such as increased temperature, toxins, infection, or lack of oxygen. They have several functions that help the cell to recover from stress and repair stress-induced damage. Antibodies against these proteins may indicate that a person is at increased risk of certain disorders. Heat shock protein 32 appears to have a protective role in renal diseases such as glomerulonephritis and drug-induced nephrotoxicity.
Heat Shock Protein 65 ig Antibody (hsp 65 Ab): Heat shock proteins (also called stress proteins) inside cells become more active when the cell is exposed to stressors, such as increased temperature, toxins, infection, or lack of oxygen. They have several functions that help the cell to recover from stress and repair stress-induced damage. Antibodies against these proteins may indicate that a person is at increased risk of certain disorders. Elevated levels of heat shock protein 65 antibody have been reported in carotid atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and borderline hypertension.
HeatShock Protein 71 ig Antibody (hsp 71 Ab): Heat shock proteins (also called stress proteins) inside cells become more active when the cell is exposed to stressors, such as increased temperature, toxins, infection, or lack of oxygen. They have several functions that help the cell to recover from stress and repair stress-induced damage. Antibodies against these proteins may indicate that a person is at increased risk of certain disorders. Elevated levels of heat shock protein 71 antibody have been observed in people with acute heat-induced illnesses (heat cramps, heat stroke, and heat exhaustion) and benzene poisoning.
Heat Shock Protein 90 Alpha ig Antibody (hsp 90 Alpha Ab): Heat shock proteins (also called stress proteins) inside cells become more active when the cell is exposed to stressors, such as increased temperature, toxins, infection, or lack of oxygen. They have several functions that help the cell to recover from stress and repair stress-induced damage. Antibodies against these proteins may indicate that a person is at increased risk of certain disorders. Elevated levels of heat shock protein 90 alpha antibodies have been seen in individuals with acute heat-induced illnesses (heat cramps, heat stroke, and heat exhaustion), breast cancer, late-stage ovarian cancer, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus, among other disorders.
Heat Shock Protein 90 Beta ig Antibody (hsp 90 beta Ab): Heat shock proteins (also called stress proteins) inside cells become more active when the cell is exposed to stressors, such as increased temperature, toxins, infection, or lack of oxygen. They have several functions that help the cell to recover from stress and repair stress-induced damage. Antibodies against these proteins may indicate that a person is at increased risk of certain disorders. Elevated levels of antibody to heat shock protein 90 beta have been seen in people with breast cancer, late-stage ovarian cancer, Guillian- Barre syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and lupus nephritis, among other disorders. 
Helicobacter pylori igg Antibody (h. pylori Ab): Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium responsible for the majority of stomach ulcers and many cases of chronic gastritis (inflammation of the inner lining of the stomach). H. pylori, a common and normal inhabitant of the mucus layer of the human stomach, plays an important role in gastroduodenal inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Antibodies against H. pylori indicate prior infection with these bacteria. H. pylori antibodies are detectable in almost all adult patients with duodenal ulcers and in about 80% of patients with gastric ulcers. However, only about 10-20% of people who are positive for H. pylori develop ulcers. Infection occurs through person-to-person contact or by ingesting contaminated water or food.
Hematocrit: The hematocrit is the percentage of whole blood that comprises red blood cells. It is a measure of both the number and the size of these cells and is expressed as a percentage by volume. A low hematocrit may indicate anemia, blood loss, bone marrow failure, destruction of red blood cells, malnutrition or specific nutritional deficiency, multiple myeloma, or rheumatoid arthritis. A high hematocrit may indicate dehydration, eclampsia, erythrocytosis, or polycythemia vera.
Hemoglobin (hb): Hemoglobin (Hb) is an iron-containing protein that enables red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs to body tissues. Without enough hemoglobin, the tissues lack oxygen and the heart and lungs must work harder to try to compensate. Low levels of hemoglobin may indicate anemia, excessive bleeding, nutritional deficiencies, destruction of cells because of a transfusion reaction or mechanical heart valve, or abnormally formed hemoglobin such as is found in sickle cell anemia. A high hemoglobin may be caused by polycythemia vera, a disease in which too many red blood cells are made. Hemoglobin levels also help determine if a person needs a blood transfusion.
Hemoglobin A1c (hbA1c): Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measures the amount of glucose bound to hemoglobin, a protein in the red blood cells, and indicates the general control of glucose levels over a 2 to 3 month period. HbA1c is formed when glucose in the blood binds irreversibly to hemoglobin. Since the normal life span of a red blood cell is 90 to 120 days, HbA1c is eliminated only when red blood cells are replaced. Thus, HbA1c values are directly proportional to the concentration of glucose in the blood over the full life span of the red blood cell and are not subject to the fluctuations seen with daily blood glucose monitoring. High levels of HbA1c indicate poor glucose/insulin metabolism or inadequate diabetic control.
Hepatitis A IGM Antibody: Hepatitis A is a virus that causes infectious hepatitis (inflammation of the liver). The presence of the IgM antibody to hepatitis A virus indicates recent infection or exposure. Hepatitis A virus is spread primarily through food or water contaminated by feces from an infected person, and rarely through contact with infected blood. It can cause widespread outbreaks of disease or sporadic cases of acute hepatitis, which usually resolves without treatment over several weeks. This infection is generally mild to moderate in severity (and usually asymptomatic in young children), and never becomes chronic. Most of the rare cases of acute liver failure due to hepatitis A virus are associated with older age or underlying chronic liver disease. Hepatitis A virus – specific IgM antibodies are usually present by the time symptoms of acute hepatitis appear.
Hepatitis B core IGM Antibody: Most cases of hepatitis B are transmitted through transfusion of hepatitis B-contaminated blood and blood products, sexual contact, or from mother to newborn at birth. It can also be transmitted via needle sticks, body piercing, and tattooing using unsterilized instruments. The body produces hepatitis B core antibody in response to the core antigen, but the antibody does not have a protective role in defense against the virus. A positive hepatitis B core IgM antibody test indicates recent infection with or exposure to the hepatitis B virus, but could also be a false positive. The appearance of hepatitis B core IgM antibody together with the protective hepatitis B surface antibody indicates prior infection, recovery and immunity to hepatitis B. Its appearance with the hepatitis B surface antigen can be observed in people who are chronic carriers of hepatitis B.
Hepatitis B E IGM Antibody: Most cases of hepatitis B are transmitted through transfusion of hepatitis B-contaminated blood and blood products, sexual contact, or from mother to newborn at birth. It can also be transmitted via needle sticks, body piercing, and tattooing using unsterilized instruments. Hepatitis B e antigen is closely associated with the viral structure of hepatitis B virus. This biomaker is the antibody that is produced by the immune system in response to the hepatitis B e antigen. The Hepatitis B e antibody is produced temporarily during acute hepatitis B viral infection or consistently during or after a burst in viral replication. Seroconversion from e antigen to e antibody is a predictor of long-term clearance of hepatitis B virus in patients undergoing antiviral therapy and indicates lower levels of hepatitis B virus.
Hepatitis B Surface IGM Antibody: Most cases of hepatitis B are transmitted through transfusion of hepatitis B-contaminated blood and blood products, sexual contact, or from mother to newborn at birth. It can also be transmitted via needle sticks, body piercing, and tattooing using unsterilized instruments. Hepatitis B surface antigens are molecules on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus that trigger an antibody response. Hepatitis B surface antibody is the specific antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. Hepatitis B surface antibody appears in serum one to four months after onset of symptoms and indicates clinical recovery and immunity. Hepatitis B surface antibody can provide protection against hepatitis B infection. A positive result indicates prior exposure to hepatitis B from a vaccination or from an infection with hepatitis B. Although a positive result is indicative of immunity to the hepatitis B virus, a negative result does not necessarily mean that an individual is not protected from hepatitis B. In fact, up to 60% of vaccinated individuals will not have detectable levels of hepatitis B surface antibody in their blood 9-15 years after vaccination.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Most cases of hepatitis B are transmitted through transfusion of hepatitis B-contaminated blood and blood products, sexual contact, or from mother to newborn at birth. It can also be transmitted via needle sticks, body piercing, and tattooing using unsterilized instruments. Hepatitis B surface antigens are molecules on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus that trigger an antibody response. A positive hepatitis B surface antigen test result indicates infection with or exposure to the hepatitis B virus. Persistent presence of this antigen may indicate chronic infection (i.e. chronic carrier). Hepatitis B surface antigen is the first serological marker detected, at an average of 4 to 12 weeks after exposure, and levels peak before onset of symptoms. It is usually present for 2 to 3 months, but 5 to 10% of patients will have persistent hepatitis B surface antigen levels beyond 6 months (chronic carriers).
Hepatitis C IGG Antibody: Hepatitis C virus is generally transmitted through contact with infected blood products. Hepatitis C virus is the most common chronic blood borne infection in the United States. Blood transfusions were the leading route of transmission until routine blood screening began in 1991. In the US, most newly acquired hepatitis C infections are related to intravenous drug use. Risk of sexual transmission is rare and occurs in <5% of those couples where one individual is infected. Mother-to-baby transmission is possible, but uncommon. Acute hepatitis C is asymptomatic in a majority of cases but results in chronic infection in 80 to 85% of patients. Hepatitis C is the most important cause of chronic liver disease in the U.S. False positive hepatitis C IgG antibody results occur in a small percentage of individuals who take the hepatitis C antibody test. For those with a true positive result, the presence of the hepatitis C antibody does not determine if an individual has an acute infection, a chronic infection, or a resolved infection.
Hepatitis D IGM Antibody: Hepatitis D virus is strongly associated with hepatitis B virus infections. The presence of the antibody against hepatitis D indicates recent infection or exposure. Infection with the hepatitis D virus is always seen in association with hepatitis B virus infection, either as a simultaneous acute infection or as an acute super-infection superimposed upon chronic hepatitis B virus. Patients almost invariably have detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and/or antibodies to hepatitis core antigen and hepatitis B e antigen. In patients with acute co-infections, hepatitis D antigen appears early after hepatitis B surface antigen and disappears with convalescence. Acute hepatitis D virus infections are associated with hepatitis D IGM antibody and chronic cases usually only demonstrate IgG antibody. Both antibodies may eventually disappear following convalescence.
Hepatitis E orf 2.3 kd igM Antibody (hev orf 2.3 kd Ab): Hepatitis E is a major cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in Asia, Africa and Mexico. The presence of the IgM antibody against hepatitis E virus indicates recent infection or exposure. Hepatitis E virus transmission is via the fecal- oral route, presumably through contaminated water supplies; it often occurs among individuals 15 to 40 years of age and is usually not chronic. The highest rate of symptomatic disease (jaundice) occurs in hepatitis E outbreaks. Sporadic cases of hepatitis E in industrialized, non-endemic countries are occasionally reported. The duration of HEV IgG antibody persistence and the natural history of protective immunity to hepatitis E virus are not well known.
Hepatitis E orf 2.6 kd IGM Antibody(hev orf 2.6 kd Ab): Hepatitis E is a major cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in Asia, Africa and Mexico. The presence of the IgM antibody against hepatitis E virus indicates recent infection or exposure. Hepatitis E virus transmission is via the fecal- oral route, presumably through contaminated water supplies; it often occurs among individuals 15 to 40 years of age and is usually not chronic. The highest rate of symptomatic disease (jaundice) occurs in hepatitis E outbreaks. Sporadic cases of hepatitis E in industrialized, non-endemic countries are occasionally reported. The duration of HEV IgG antibody persistence and the natural history of protective immunity to hepatitis E virus are not well known.
Hepatitis E orf 3.3 kd IGM Antibody(hev orf 3.3 kd Ab): Hepatitis E is a major cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in Asia, Africa and Mexico. The presence of the IgM antibody against hepatitis E virus indicates recent infection or exposure. Hepatitis E virus transmission is via the fecal- oral route, presumably through contaminated water supplies; it often occurs among individuals 15 to 40 years of age and is usually not chronic. The highest rate of symptomatic disease (jaundice) occurs in hepatitis E outbreaks. Sporadic cases of hepatitis E in industrialized, non-endemic countries are occasionally reported. The duration of HEV IgG antibody persistence and the natural history of protective immunity to hepatitis E virus are not well known.
Herpes Simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D IGGM Antibody (hsv-1 gd Ab): Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is the virus that causes the common cold sore, although it infrequently infects other mucous membranes. IgM antibodies to HSV-1 glycoprotein D indicate recent exposure to or infection with the herpes virus most typically responsible for the common cold sore.
Herpes Simplex virus types 1 And 2 igM Antibody (hsv-1/2 Ab): Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is the virus that causes cold sores, while herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes. The presence of IgM antibodies to either of these viruses indicates that the individual has been recently exposed to or infected with that virus. HSV-1 and HSV-2 can both cause systemic disease in persons with compromised immune systems.
Herpes Simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein d igM Antibody (hsv-2 gd Ab): Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the virus that causes genital herpes. IgM antibodies to HSV-2 glycoprotein D indicate recent exposure to or infection with the herpes virus most commonly responsible for genital infection.
High- density Lipoprotein (HDL): High density lipoproteins (HDL) are known as the “good cholesterol” because they carry excess cholesterol out of the bloodstream. HDL cholesterol helps to prevent the build up of cholesterol in the bloodstream and thereby decreasing deposition of cholesterol in the arteries. High levels of HDL cholesterol are considered protective for heart disease, while low levels represent an increased risk.
Histone ig Antibody: Histones are normal occurring proteins associated with the DNA in the nuclie of our cells. Antibodies to histones may be elevated in idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and more often in drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). DILE is mostly commonly associated with drugs such as procainamide, quinidine, acebutolol, penicillamine, and isoniazid, but may be associated with other medications as well. DILE can produce lupus like symptoms or symptoms mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.
Histone h1 Antibody: Histones are normal occuring proteins associated with the DNA in the nuclei of our cells. Antibodies to histones may be elevated in drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). DILE is mostly commonly associated with drugs such as procainaminde, quinidine, acebutolol, penicillamine, and isoniazid, but may be associated with other medications as well. DILE can produce lupus like symptoms or symptoms mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.
Histone h2A Antibody: Histones are normal occuring proteins associated with the DNA in the nuclei of our cells. Antibodies to histones may be elevated in drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). DILE is mostly commonly associated with drugs such as procainaminde, quinidine, acebutolol, penicillamine, and isoniazid, but may be associated with other medications as well. DILE can produce lupus like symptoms or symptoms mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.
Histone h2b Antibody: Histones are normal occuring proteins associated with the DNA in the nuclei of our cells. Antibodies to histones may be elevated in drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). DILE is mostly commonly associated with drugs such as procainaminde, quinidine, acebutolol, penicillamine, and isoniazid, but may be associated with other medications as well. DILE can produce lupus like symptoms or symptoms mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.
Histone h3 Antibody: Histones are normal occuring proteins associated with the DNA in the nuclei of our cells. Antibodies to histones may be elevated in drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). DILE is mostly commonly associated with drugs such as procainaminde, quinidine, acebutolol, penicillamine, and isoniazid, but may be associated with other medications as well. DILE can produce lupus like symptoms or symptoms mimicking rheumatoid arthritis. Histone h4 Antibody: Histones are normal occuring proteins associated with the DNA in the nuclei of our cells. Antibodies to histones may be elevated in drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DILE). DILE is mostly commonly associated with drugs such as procainaminde, quinidine, acebutolol, penicillamine, and isoniazid, but may be associated with other medications as well. DILE can produce lupus like symptoms or symptoms mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.
Homocysteine: Homocysteine is an amino acid found in the blood. Elevated levels are a risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke and other diseases involving plaque formation to the arteries. Levels of homocysteine are affected by both diet and genetics. Folic acid and vitamins B6 and B12 have the most effect on homocysteine levels. Deficiencies of these important vitamins can lead to elevated homocysteine levels.
Human chorionic Gonadotropin (betA-hcg): Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) is a hormone whose levels become elevated early in pregnancy. The test is most often used to confirm a pregnancy, but serum beta-hCG may also be increased in women with certain types of ovarian cancer or in men with testicular cancer.
Human Papilloma virus igM Antibody (hpv Ab): The human papilloma virus (HPV) has the potential to infect the skin and mucosal membranes. Skin infections usually result in the formation of warts. The most common sites for mucosal infections are the genital area, oral mucosa, and lungs. Many serotypes have been described; some cause skin and genital warts, while others are associated with cervical cancer and anogenital and laryngeal carcinomas. Presence of the human papilloma virus IgM antibody indicates recent exposure to or infection with the HPV.
Human t-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 And 2 Antibody (htlv-1/2 Ab): Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a virus that may be associated with T-cell leukemias and lymphomas. HTLV-1 an dHTLV-2 differ; HTLV-1 causes leukemia and other neurologic and inflammatory diseases, whereas HTLV-2 is less clearly associated with specific diseases.
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