Lab Test Glossary I

Imunoglobulin E (IGE): Immunoglobulin E (IGE) is one of the major classes of antibodies that comprise our immune system. IGE antibodies are proteins that are present in the blood and are often involved in allergic reactions. The levels of circulating IgE in serum are low (<0.1%) compared to levels of the other immunoglobulin. Levels at birth are almost non-detectable, but increase with age. Significant elevations in IgE levels may indicate allergic reactions, parasitic infection or immune disorder, and IGE serum assays are useful in monitoring treatment of these disorders. However, low levels of circulating IgE do not necessarily indicate the absence of allergic disease, since certain individuals have low total IGE levels but a high concentration of allergen- specific IGE. Investigators have shown that increased IGE levels in cord blood and infant's serum may predict the early onset of allergic disease.
Immunoglobulin M (IGM): Immunoglobulin M (IGM) is one of the major classes of antibodies that comprise our immune system. IGM antibodies are a class of proteins produced by the immune system early in an immune reaction. IGM levels therefore usually rise in acute infections, particularly viral infections. Substantially elevated serum IGM levels may indicate a variety of blood cell disorders. In adults, IGM accounts for about 10% of the total serum antibodies. IGM deficiency may be due to protein loss, inherited defects, toxins (e.g., drugs or substances retained in renal failure), or secondary to lymphoid malignancies. IGM antibodies tend to predominate in primary viral infections and bloodstream infections (e.g., malaria) and IGM levels are markedly increased in primary biliary cirrhosis.
Influenza A IGM Antibody: Influenza is a viral disease characterized by fever, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, fatigue, and sometimes cough. Influenza type A is the most common type of virus to cause “the flu”. The presence of antibodies to influenza A indicates recent exposure to or infection with this virus or recent vaccination with influenza A. Levels of these antibodies may be elevated after getting the flu vaccine. Of the three types of influenza viruses, type A is most likely to cause epidemics and pandemics
Influenza A h3n2 IGM Antibody: Influenza is a viral disease characterized by fever, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, fatigue, and sometimes cough. Influenza type A is the most common type of virus to cause “the flu” and H3N2 is a common subtype of this virus. A positive influenza A H3N2 IGM antibody test indicates recent exposure to or recent vaccination with influenza A.
Influenza B IGM Antibody: Influenza is a viral disease characterized by fever, muscle aches, headache, sore throat, fatigue, and sometimes cough. Influenza type A and influenza type B are common viruses that can cause “the flu”. Although both types may cause widespread infection, influenza B infections are often limited to localized outbreaks. The presence of antibodies to influenza B indicates recent exposure to or recent vaccination with influenza B.
Insulin: Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas that regulates the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood and allows cells to use this sugar for energy. Diabetes occurs when the body fails to produce enough insulin or when the body’s cells cannot respond to it efficiently. Insulin levels may be monitored in people suspected of having low blood sugar or high insulin levels, the latter being common in certain diseases, including insulin resistance and polycystic ovarian syndrome.
Insulin ig Antibody: Antibodies against the hormone insulin may develop in people receiving insulin injections for the treatment of diabetes. This may make them somewhat resistant to insulin’s effects. In people who have never received insulin injections, antibodies against insulin may indicate an autoimmune condition leading to the destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, which can lead to the development of diabetes.
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (igfbp3): Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) is a protein hormone whose structure resembles that of insulin. Functionally, it is related to growth hormone and may be important in the normal development of children. IGFBP3 is the major carrier of insulin-like growth factors in the serum and serum concentrations of IGFBP3 are fairly constant throughout the day. The measurement of IGFBP-3 is useful in the evaluation of short stature in children, acromegaly, the efficacy of treatment for growth hormone deficiency, the surgical cure of somatotroph tumors, and nutritional status.
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf-1): Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, also called somatromedin) is a protein hormone similar in structure and function to insulin, but with a much higher growth-promoting activity than insulin. It stimulates proliferation of various types of cells including muscle, bone, and cartilage. Factors that are known to cause variation in the levels of growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 in serum include genetic make-up, time of day, age, gender, exercise status, stress levels, nutrition level and body mass index (BMI), disease state, race, estrogen status and xenobiotic intake. 
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (icAM-1): Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a cell surface adhesion molecule whose levels may be elevated in several diseases, including chronic inflammatory conditions, cardiovascular disease, HIV, asthma, diabetes and cancer.
Interleukin-1 Alpha (il-1 Alpha): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) controls certain immune system reactions, including inflammation, swelling, fever, and shivering. IL-1 also promotes hematopoiesis (blood cell formation). There are two distinct forms of the protein, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta (renamed IL-1F1, IL-1F2 respectively), which perform the same functions but are structurally distinct.
Interleukin-1 beta (il-1 beta): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 1 (IL-1) controls certain immune system reactions, including inflammation, swelling, fever, and shivering. IL-1 also promotes hematopoiesis (blood cell formation). There are two distinct forms of the protein, IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta (renamed IL-1F1, IL-1F2 respectively), which perform the same functions but are structurally distinct. 
Interleukin-2 (il-2): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is instrumental in the body’s natural response to microbial infection and in discriminating between foreign (nonself) and self. IL-2 is important in anti-inflammatory reactions, blood cell production and elimination of cancer cells at an early stage of cancer development. Its levels may be elevated in a number of inflammatory conditions as well as various forms of cancer. IL-2 is used to treat patients with cancers refractory to conventional treatment.
Interleukin-3 (il-3): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 3 (IL-3) helps to stimulate the development and functioning of various types of blood cells. Its levels may be abnormal in a variety of inflammatory disorders, allergic reactions, and blood cell diseases.
Interleukin-4 (il-4): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) helps to control the immune system’s response to inflammation and plays an important role in allergic responses. IL-4 may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and autoimmune diseases since it inhibits the production of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor.
Interleukin-5 (il-5): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 5 (IL-5) is produced by T-cells (a type of white blood cell) and is specifically responsible for the growth and maturation of eosinophils (another type of white blood cell). Levels of IL-5 may be abnormal in certain infectious, inflammatory, and allergic conditions.
Interleukin-6 (il-6): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) may be elevated in a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases. IL-6 stimulates an immune response to trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage that leads to inflammation. IL-6 is also one of the most important mediators of fever and of the acute phase response. Elevated levels are observed in a variety of inflammatory processes, including endotoxemia and collagen vascular diseases, as well as in alcoholic cirrhosis and chronic renal failure.
Interleukin-7 (il-7): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is made by cells in the bone marrow and can stimulate certain immune cells to grow. IL-7 improves the body’s natural response to infection and disease and enhances the immune system’s ability to fight tumor cells. Levels of IL-7 may be elevated in a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases
Interleukin-8 (il-8): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is involved in a variety of inflammatory processes and may be particularly important in psoriasis (scaly patches of skin) and rheumatoid arthritis.
Interleukin-10 (il-10): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) functions to limit and ultimately terminate inflammatory responses. IL-10 also regulates the differentation and proliferation of several immune cells. IL-10 is involved in the elimination of cancer cells at an early stage of development and may suppress the growth of certain cancers, such as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Interleukin-12 p40 (il-12 p40): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is produced by white blood cells called lymphocytes and may help to prevent certain cancers. IL-12 levels may also be elevated in bacterial and parasitic infections. IL-12 p40 is a subunit of IL-12.
Interleukin 12 p70 (il-12 p70): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. IL-12 is produced by white blood cells called lymphocytes and may help to prevent certain cancers. IL-12 levels may also be elevated in bacterial and parasitic infections. IL-12 p70 is a subunit of IL-12.
Interleukin 13 (il-13): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) controls the activity of white blood cells called macrophages and reduces the production of other cell signaling proteins, including some of the other interleukins. It down regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-12) and chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1).
Interleukin-15 (il-15): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 15 (IL-15) controls the activity of white blood cells, called macrophages, and reduces the production of other cell signaling proteins, including some of the other interleukins. IL-15 is produced in high levels in the placenta and skeletal muscle and in low levels in the heart, lungs, kidney and liver.
Interleukin-16 (il-16): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Interleukin 16 (IL-16) attracts certain white blood cells, including T-cell lymphocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils. Very high levels of IL-16 are produced in response to IL-1 beta.
Interleukin-18 (il-18): Interleukins are cytokine (cell signaling) proteins produced by white blood cells, which help to control immune system and inflammation responses. Increased levels of IL-18 may be associated with Crohn’s disease, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and obesity.
Iron binding capacity, total (TIBC): Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is one measure of the body?s ability to transport iron via proteins in the blood. Transferrin is the primary protein to which iron binds. TIBC is usually higher than normal when the body’s iron stores are low; thus, an increased TIBC is seen in iron deficiency states, which are often related to blood loss or anemia. In iron overload situations, such as hemochromatosis, iron levels are high and TIBC is low or normal. With liver disease, TIBC and transferrin levels are low, since transferrin is made in the liver. Because transferrin levels fall relatively rapidly when there is insufficient protein in the diet, TIBC can also be used to monitor nutrition. A decreased TIBC is often seen in chronic inflammatory disorders, kwashiorkor, chronic iron overloading, and malignancies. 
Iron binding capacity, unsaturated(UIBC): Unsaturated iron binding capacity (UIBC) is the reserve iron binding capacity of serum. Iron in blood is carried by the transport protein, transferrin. Only about one third of the iron binding sites of transferrin are normally occupied by iron, therefore, serum has considerable reserve iron binding capacity. UIBC is calculated as the difference between total iron binding capacity and the serum iron. Decreased UIBC levels may indicate hereditary hemochromatosis, or iron overload. Elevated levels of UIBC may be seen in iron deficiency disorders.
Iron, percent saturated: Saturated iron binding capacity is a measure of the percentage of transferrin and other mobile, iron-binding proteins that are saturated with iron.
Iron, serum: Iron is an important mineral that is involved in the transport of oxygen in the blood. About 65% of the body?s iron is attached to hemoglobin. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world and is found primarily among young children and premenopausal women. Measurement of iron in serum aids in the evaluation of a number of conditions involving red blood cell production and destruction, iron metabolism, iron transport, or nutrition. Elevated serum levels of iron may occur in such disorders as hemochromatosis, hemolysis, hemolytic anemia, hemosiderosis, liver disease, vitamin B12 deficiency, and lead toxicity. Decreased serum iron levels may occur in iron deficiency anemia, malabsorption disorders, nephrotic syndrome, insufficient intake of dietary iron, and circumstances involving chronic or heavy bleeding.
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