Lab Test Glossary M

Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC): Macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) is made by macrophages and serves to attract white blood cells called neutrophils. High levels of MDC are seen in macrophages associated with atherosclerotic plaques (the cholesterol buildups that cause atherosclerosis). MDC also enhances the neutrophils bactericidal activity and stimulates the release of lysozyme (an enyzme that destroys bacterial cell walls).
Macrophage Inflammatory Protein 1 Alpha (Mip-1 Alpha): Macrophage inflammatory proteins are produced by white blood cells called macrophages after stimulation from bacteria. These proteins stimulate the activity of other white blood cells, called neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, in response to infection or inflammation. The two macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta) are the major factors produced by macrophages stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. Both stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (a group of highly reactive molecules that damage cell structures) in neutrophils, stimulate the release of lysosome (an enzyme that destroys bacterial cell walls), and induce the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (cell signaling proteins).
Macrophage Inflammatory protein 1 beta (Mip-1 beta): Macrophage inflammatory proteins are produced by white blood cells called macrophages after stimulation from bacteria. These proteins stimulate the activity of other white blood cells, called neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, in response to infection or inflammation. The two macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta) are the major factors produced by macrophages stimulated with bacterial endotoxins. Both stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (a group of highly reactive molecules that damage cell structures) in neutrophils, stimulate the release of lysosome (an enzyme that destroys bacterial cell walls), and induce the synthesis of other pro-inflammatory cytokines (cell signaling proteins).
Magnesium (Mg): Magnesium (Mg) is a mineral involved in many bodily processes, including nerve signaling, the building of healthy bones, and muscle contraction. It is important in the normal functioning of more than 300 enzymes in the body. High levels of magnesium may result from renal failure, adrenal insufficiency, hypothyroidism, tissue breakdown, or the overuse of antacids or laxatives. Low blood levels of magnesium may result from a number of conditions including malabsorption, certain drugs, severe diarrhea, chronic vomiting, hyperaldosteronism, celiac disease, and others.
Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2): Matrix metalloproteinases, such as MMP-2 (also called gelatinase A), are enzymes that break down the structural proteins that hold tissues together. The blood levels of several of these enzymes may be elevated during normal wound healing, pregnancy, and the creation of new blood vessels. Levels may also be elevated in various diseases involving tissue destruction and/or inflammation, including various cancers, periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ulcerated wounds, and certain autoimmune diseases. It has been suggested that tissue destruction in disease processes often correlates with an imbalance of MMPs over their protein inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs).
Matrix Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3): Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that break down the structural proteins that hold tissues together. The blood levels of several of these enzymes may be elevated during normal wound healing, pregnancy, and the creation of new blood vessels, but these levels may also be elevated in various diseases involving tissue destruction and/or inflammation, including various cancers, periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ulcerated wounds, and certain autoimmune diseases. It has been suggested that tissue destruction in disease processes often correlates with an imbalance of MMPs over their protein inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Levels of MMP-3 have been found to be elevated in a number of unrelated diseases, including meningococcal meningitis, chronic transplant nephropathy, coronary aneurysms, rheumatoid arthritis (especially in the presence of cartilage damage), psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and mixed connective tissue disease.
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9): Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes that break down the structural proteins that hold tissues together. The blood levels of several of these enzymes may be elevated during normal wound healing, pregnancy, and the creation of new blood vessels. Levels may also be elevated in various diseases involving tissue destruction and/or inflammation, including various cancers, periodontitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ulcerated wounds, and certain autoimmune diseases. It has been suggested that tissue destruction in disease processes often correlates with an imbalance of MMPs over their protein inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). MMP-9 (also known as gelatinase B) is often expressed by human cancer cells. Elevated plasma levels have also been observed in people with abdominal aortic aneurysm, giant cell arteritis, and in the cerebral spinal fluid of people with multiple sclerosis.
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH): Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is an estimate of the amount of hemoglobin carried by each red blood cell. Hemoglobin is the iron-binding protein that carries oxygen. An abnormally elevated MCH may result from macrocytic anemia, while an abnormally low MCH may occur due to blood loss over time, too little iron in the body, microcytic anemia or hemoglobinopathies (genetic defect that produces abnormal hemoglobin and anemia).
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC): Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is an estimate of the level of hemoglobin (the iron-binding protein that carries oxygen) in a given number of packed and transfusable red blood cells. An abnormally elevated MCHC may be due to spherocytosis (a genetic disorder of the red blood cell membrane), unstable hemoglobin, or vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency. An abnormally low MCHC may be due to blood loss over time, iron deficiency, or hypochromic anemia.
Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV): Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is the average amount of space occupied by each red blood cell. Causes of a high MCV include liver disease, alcohol abuse, hypothyroidism, reticulocytosis, marrow aplasia, vitamin B12 or folic acid deficiency, and myelofibrosis. Causes of a low MCV include lead poisoning, chronic kidney failure, hemoglobinopathy, and certain anemias.
Mitochondrial ig Antibody: The mitochondria are the parts of our cells that produce energy. Antibodies against the mitochondria are produced in some autoimmune conditions. Additionally, various subtypes of these antibodies have been associated with biliary cirrhosis, syphilis, pseudosyphilis and isoniazid-induced hepatitis.
Monocyte Chemotactic Protein 1 (MCP-1): Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) is a cell signaling protein produced by the body in response to inflammation. It attracts white blood cells to the inflamed area to combat disease-causing organisms (such as bacteria or viruses). MCP-1 plays a role in the recruitment of monocytes to sites of injury and infection. Thus, their levels are elevated in a variety of infections and inflammatory processes. It has been found in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients, where it may recruit macrophages and perpetuate joint inflammation.
Monocyte Count: Monocytes, a type of white blood cell, help remove dead (necrotic) tissues. They are involved in the immune response to foreign substances. The monocyte number is often increased in response to chronic infection, inflammatory bowel disease, leukemia, and certain cancers. It may be decreased in people who have anemia or are taking corticosteroids.
Monocyte Percentage: Monocytes are a type of white blood cell accounting for 2-8% of circulating white blood cells. They are involved in the immune response to foreign substances, including the removal of dead (necrotic) tissue. The monocyte percentage is often increased in response to chronic infection, inflammatory bowel disease, leukemia, and certain cancers. It may be decreased in people who have anemia or are taking corticosteroids.
Mumps Ig Antibody: Antibodies against the paramyxovirus that causes mumps indicate either prior exposure or vaccination. Children with type 1 diabetes mellitus tend to have unusually low IgG mumps virus antibody levels.
Mycobacteria Tuberculosis IGM Antibody (M. tuberculosis Ab): Mycobacteria tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB). The presence of IgM antibodies against this bacterium indicates recent exposure to or infection with it. Ninety percent of those infected have asymptomatic latent TB infection, with a 10% lifetime risk of progression to active disease.
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae IGM Antibody(M. Pneumoniae AB): Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a bacterium that causes respiratory infections, including pneumonia. The presence of IGM antibodies to M. pneumoniae indicates recent exposure to or infection with these bacteria. M. pneumoniae is the causative organism in 15% to 20% of pneumonia cases but can also cause asymptomatic respiratory infections, acute tracheobronchitis, or Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Levels of IGG and IGM antibodies vary according to time after the onset of illness and patient age: adults tend to have higher IgG antibody levels than do children.
MyeloperoxidAse IG Antibody (Mpo Ab): Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme primarily found in neutrophils (a type of white blood cell). Antibodies against this enzyme appear to play a role in the development of certain kidney and blood vessel diseases.
Myoglobin: Myoglobin is the primary oxygen-carrying protein in muscle tissues. During the course of a heart attack, the oxygen deprived heart muscle releases myoglobin into the bloodstream. Elevated levels of myoglobin may be detected as early as 30 minutes after chest pain begins and generally peak at 6 to 12 hours and return to baseline within 24 to 36 hours. Skeletal muscles can be damaged by a wide variety of pathological processes, causing release of myoglobin into the circulation. When muscles are severely damaged by injury or disease, myoglobin levels may be especially high. This in turn may cause kidney damage because of the damage done to the kidneys by myoglobin and its metabolites.
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