Lab Test Glosary R

Lab Test Glossary R

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC count): The red blood cell count (RBC) indicates the total number of red blood cells in the blood. An abnormally high RBC count may be associated with cardiovascular disease, polycythemia vera, tobacco abuse, renal cell carcinoma, high altitude, or dehydration. An abnormally low count may indicate anemia, hemorrhage, bone marrow disease or chronic renal failure.
Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW): Red cell distribution width (RDW) measures the variability in size of the red blood cell population. When used in conjunction with mean corpuscular volume (MCV), this test is useful in diagnosing a variety of conditions.
Rantes: Regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) is a protein that attracts various types of white blood cells and brings them to sites of inflammation. Levels of RANTES may be elevated in inflammatory and allergic conditions. RANTES (also called CCL5) activates eosinophils and basophils (types of white blood cells) and stimulates immunoglobulin E production.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus IGM Antibody (RSV AB): Respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) may cause serious respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. The presence of the IgM antibody against RSV indicates recent exposure to or infection with this virus, but does not protect against being infected with it again. In older children and adults, RSV may cause an influenza-like syndrome, bronchopneumonia, or exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.
Rheumatoid Factor (RF): Rheumatoid factor (RF) is an immune system antibody whose presence generally indicates an autoimmune disease. RF may be found in a variety of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Sjo?gren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, polymyositis or dermatomyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease. Although RF also occurs in up to 5% of apparently healthy individuals, it is present at very low levels. In addition, RF assays may be positive in some patients with syphilis, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis, bacterial endocarditis, hepatitis, mononucleosis, cirrhosis, sarcoidosis, or diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.
Ribosomal Nuclear Protein IG Antibody (RNP AB): Ribosomal nuclear protein antibodies (RNP Ab) are directed against molecules in the nuclei of the body’s cells. Antibodies to nuclear antigens are strongly associated with collagen vascular diseases. RNP Ab, in conjunction with other autoantibodies, may be observed in progressive systemic sclerosis and Sjo?gren’s syndrome.
Ribosomal Nuclear Protein A IG Antibody (RNP A Ab): Ribosomal nuclear protein A antibodies (RNP A Ab) are antibodies against molecules in the nuclei of the body’s cells. Antibodies to nuclear antigens are strongly associated with collagen vascular diseases. RNP A Ab, in conjunction with other autoantibodies, may be observed in progressive systemic sclerosis and Sjo?gren’s syndrome.
Ribosomal Nuclear Protein C IG Antibody (RNP C AB): Ribosomal nuclear protein C antibodies (RNP C Ab) are antibodies against molecules in the nuclei of the body’s cells. Antibodies to nuclear antigens are strongly associated with collagen vascular diseases. RNP C Ab, in conjunction with other autoantibodies, may be observed in progressive systemic sclerosis and Sjo?gren’s syndrome.
Ribosomal P IG Antibody: Ribosomal P antibodies are directed against a part of the body’s cells. Ribosomal P antibodies are found in about 12% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and in 90% of those with lupus psychosis.
Rubella IG Antibody: Rubella (also called “German measles”) is a contagious disease caused by the rubella virus (not the same virus that causes measles). Rubella causes rash, fever, and swollen lymph glands. Since the vaccination was introduced in 1969, outbreaks are rare, but have been reported among college students and in unvaccinated populations. The primary medical danger of rubella is the infection of pregnant women, which may cause congenital rubella syndrome in developing babies. Therefore, it is important to determine the rubella immune status in women of child-bearing age, pregnant women, and individuals who may have close contact with them.
Rubeola IG Antibody: Rubeola, also called measles, is a childhood disease that was historically widespread, but is now infrequent. It is a highly contagious, acute viral infection characterized in its final stages by a rash that spreads over the neck and face, body, arms, and legs. The risk of exposure to measles in the United States is low because of the high population immunity achieved through vaccination. Most people born before 1957 are considered to be immune from measles and generally are not vulnerable to the virus. However, measles or MMR vaccine may be given if there is reason to believe a person might be susceptible. Outbreaks that have occurred in the U.S. have been attributed to importation of the virus from other countries.
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