Lab Test Glossary S

Lab Test Glossary S

ScleroderMA 70 IG Antibody (SCL-70 Ab): Scleroderma 70 antibody (Scl-70 Ab) is an autoantibody that may become elevated in people with both localized and diffuse forms of scleroderma. The diffuse form of schleroderma is also referred to as progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). The Scl-70 Ab is highly characteristic of the disease. The Scl-70 Ab can also be seen in other autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), CREST syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as in a condition known as Raynaud’s syndrome.
Serum Amyloid P (SAP): Serum amyloid P is a protein that is found in normal serum and in amyloid plaques (protein deposits in the tissues). It plays a key role in the formation and deposition of amyloid plaques; however, the exact mechanism by which it does this is poorly understood.
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG): Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) binds sex hormones with a high affinity for dihydrotestosterone and a low affinity for estradiol. Abnormal levels of SHBG may occur in a variety of diseases or in pregnancy. Decreased SHBG levels may occur in hirsutism, virilization, obese postmenopausal women, and women with diffuse hair loss. Increased levels may occur in hyperthyroidism, testicular feminization, cirrhosis, male hypogonadism, pregnancy, and during oral contraceptive use.
Smith IG Antibody (SM Ab): Smith antibodies (Sm Ab) are directed against molecules in the nuclei of the body’s cells. Antibodies to nuclear antigens are strongly associated with collagen vascular diseases. The Sm Ab is only observed in people with systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). However, only about 20-30% of people with lupus have a positive Sm Ab.
Sodium (NA): Sodium is an important positively charged electrolyte that helps regulate the amount of fluid inside and surrounding the body’s cells and the electrolyte balance of the body. Sodium also plays an important role in nerve and muscle functions. Its levels in the body are tightly controlled by many hormonal and metabolic mechanisms. Sodium levels may be abnormal in a variety of diseases and many factors affect sodium levels, including aldosterone, which reduces sodium loss in the urine. A low level of blood sodium (hyponatremia) may be due to sodium loss (Addison's disease, diarrhea, excessive sweating, diuretic administration, or kidney disease). In some cases, it is due to increased water (drinking too much water, heart failure, cirrhosis, kidney diseases that cause protein loss). A high blood sodium level (hypernatremia) is usually due to dehydration. In rare cases, hypernatremia may be due to increased salt intake without enough water, Cushing syndrome, or too little anti-diuretic hormone (called diabetes insipidus).
SSA IG Antibody: SSA antibodies react to molecules in the nuclei of the body’s cells. Antibodies to nuclear antigens are hallmarks of collagen vascular diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), mixed connective tissue disease, progressive systemic sclerosis, and Sjo?gren’s syndrome. Maternal SSA antibodies appear to be strongly associated with neonatal systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) with congenital heart block.
SSB IG Antibody: SSB antibodies react to molecules in the nuclei of the body’s cells. Antibodies to nuclear antigens are hallmarks of collagen vascular diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus), mixed connective tissue disease, progressive systemic sclerosis, and Sjo?gren’s syndrome. Several studies point to the use of SSB antibodies as a serological marker for Sjo?gren’s syndrome-sicca complex, since they are detected in about 60% of these patients.
Stem Cell Factor (SCF): Stem cell factor (SCF) is a cytokine (cell signaling protein) made by various tissues. It stimulates the production of stem cells, which mature into all the different types of blood cells. SCF may be useful in the treatment of a variety of bone marrow and blood disorders.
Streptolysin O IGM Antibody: Antibodies against streptolysin O indicate recent infection or exposure to the Streptococcus bacterium. Group A streptococcal infection may cause acute rheumatic fever, acute kidney conditions, and skin infections. Elevated serum levels of the streptolysin O antibody are found in 80% to 85% of individuals with rheumatic fever.
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